Real-life public health applications of terms and graphical representations introduced. Graphical representations. (a) Perform an internet search to find a public-health related example of each. You may copy the graph or chart directly as long as you give a source for the information.
Bar Chart/Histogram interpreting: It is estimated that about 830,000 people are living with HIV/AIDS. HIV epidemic is highly concentrated in the major populations, whereby the prevalence rates of men who have sex with men is 54%, that of people who inject drugs is 44%, that of female sex workers is 65%, and that of the rest of the population is 37%.
Pie Chart Interpreting: The distribution of HIV varies geographically, where higher levels are noted in the Southeastern (56%) and Southern (20%) parts of the country. 14% of the patients come from the Northeastern part while 6% come from Central-Western regions. The north recorded the lowest number of HIV patients at 5%.
Source: The Brazilian Department of STD/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (DDAHV)
The number of HIV infections as a result of heterosexual encounters has remained high for an extended period of time. The number of Homo/Bisexual infections is slightly above that of individuals who inject drugs into the body. Infections arising from a blood transfusion are steady going way below 0.1%.
Real-life public health applications of terms and graphical representations introduced. Key Statistical Terms. (a) Perform another search to find at least two examples of each of the following. b) Give a brief interpretation (1-2 sentences) of each example.
Ratio-The concept of the ratio is defined in terms of the sex ratio whereby it is the total number of male cases divided by the total number of female cases. In Brazil, by 2010, the sex ratio had reached 1.7 male AIDS cases to 1 female AIDS case.
Proportion-In the context of the paper, the term refers to the total number of HIV patients as part of a whole segment of the population. For example, a large proportion of children living with HIV/AIDS (0 to 14years) acquired the disease during birth.
Percentage-The percentage of HIV cases is described by comparing the total number of new infections each year with the previous year(s). This concept revolves around the gender and age of the patients.
Rate-In the context of this paper, the term rate refers to the speed at which HIV/AIDS infections have reduced or spread in Brazil over time. It is evident that the rate of HIV transmission has declined by 0.5% for the past 10years.
Incidence-Incidence conveys the information about the risk of contracting a disease. The last 10 years revealed changes in the age profile of HIV /AIDS incidence. The most notable changes in the rates of infection have been witnessed in the shift to younger individuals aged 15–24 years and adults with over 50 years. However, the highest cases of new infections are reported among people with 30–49years.
Prevalence-Prevalence indicates how widespread disease is. The HIV and AIDS prevalence rate in Brazil is at 0.4%. The following table shows the HIV prevalence in Brazil.
Sex-Specific Rate– This refers to the speed at which new infections are recorded with regard to the gender of patients. From the histogram above, infected females (65%) are more than males (54%) due to the risks of exposure to transmission agents.
Age-Specific Rate-The term refers to the speed in which new infections spread across a particular age group. For example, the rate of the spread of HIV is high between the age of 15-49years.